What is the bladder?
The bladder is a hollow balloon like organ that
collects and stores urine. It is a stretchy bag, made of muscle tissue.
The bladder is lined with a urine-proof membrane, which stops the urine
being absorbed back into the body. The kidneys produce urine and it
is then carried to the bladder via the tubes called ureters.
The bladder then stores the urine (approximately
2 cups) until it is full, it is then emptied through a tube called the
urethra, which takes urine out of the body.
In women, the urethra is a very short tube in front
of the vagina.
In men, the urethra is a much longer tube and passes through the prostate
gland and the penis.
What is bladder cancer?
Most cancers are named after the part of the body
where the cancer first starts. Cancers of the bladder are nearly always
found in the lining of the bladder, they come in many different forms
and can behave very differently. Bladder cancer is more common with
increasing age, the majority of people diagnosed with bladder cancer
are over the age of 50.
What causes bladder cancer?
The exact cause of bladder cancer is not known.
There are however, many factors which could increase your risk of getting
cancer of the bladder, they are as follows:
- Smoking - this is the greatest risk factor. The chemicals in smoke, such as
nicotine, are absorbed into the blood, filtered out by the kidneys
and end up in the urine. The urine is stored in the bladder, so the
chemicals are in contact with the bladder lining for some time, causing
damage to the cells lining the bladder.
- Exposure to chemicals used in the workplace -
for example those used in gasworks, dry cleaning or dye, rubber and
plastic factories. These chemicals have been banned in Britain for
over 20 years. However, it can take up to 25 years after exposure
to these chemicals, before bladder cancer develops.
- Repeated attacks of bladder infections such as cystitis,
however this is far less common.
- Suffering from long term attacks of bladder
stones, this is because they can cause infection.
- Family history of bladder cancer, though this
is quite rare.
- Previous bladder cancer - if you have had the
disease before, there is more of a risk of it returning.
What are the symptoms of bladder cancer?
Normally the first sign of bladder cancer is blood
in the urine, it may be visible or the amount may be so small that it
can only be discovered by a test. Other symptoms you may experience
with bladder cancer include:
- The need to urinate frequently and suddenly.
- Burning sensation or pain on passing urine.
- The need to urinate but nothing coming out.
These symptoms are also very common with milder
conditions such as cystitis and bladder or kidney stones, so it is important
that you visit your doctor for a proper diagnosis.
Can I prevent getting bladder cancer?
There is no certain way to prevent bladder cancer,
but as the majority of people with bladder cancer are smokers the best
way to avoid it, is to stop smoking.
How is bladder cancer diagnosed?
If you discover blood in your urine or you have
constant symptoms of bladder irritation of an unknown cause, your doctor
will normally do a urine test to rule out an infection. You will then
be referred to your local hospital for more tests.
A common procedure at the hospital, is a test that
allows the doctor to view the inside of the bladder via the urethra,
using an instrument called a cystoscope. If anything in the bladder
looks abnormal, a small piece of tissue will be removed for a biopsy.
Can bladder cancer be treated?
Once the diagnosis of bladder cancer has been made
the treatment will depend on the type of cancer and how far it has spread.
The most common form of treatment is surgery and will normally involve
removing the tumour from the bladder. If the cancer has grown deeper you will normally have
a choice of radiation
therapy or to have the entire bladder surgically removed.
If you need the entire bladder removed, a urinary
pouch will be constructed or it may even be possible to have a new bladder
made, using part of the bowel. Chemotherapy may also be used before surgery to shrink the tumour and after surgery
to reduce the risk of it returning.
Your doctor will help you decide which treatment is most
suitable for you.